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Comprehensive Rules
Comprehensive Rules
1. Game Concepts
100. General
101. The Magic Golden Rules
102. Players
103. Starting the Game
104. Ending the Game
105. Colors
106. Mana
107. Numbers and Symbols
108. Cards
109. Objects
110. Permanents
111. Tokens
112. Spells
113. Abilities
114. Emblems
115. Targets
116. Special Actions
117. Timing and Priority
118. Costs
119. Life
120. Damage
121. Drawing a Card
122. Counters
2. Parts of a Card
200. General
201. Name
202. Mana Cost and Color
203. Illustration
204. Color Indicator
205. Type Line
206. Expansion Symbol
207. Text Box
208. Power/Toughness
209. Loyalty
210. Hand Modifier
211. Life Modifier
212. Information Below the Text Box
3. Card Types
300. General
301. Artifacts
302. Creatures
303. Enchantments
304. Instants
305. Lands
306. Planeswalkers
307. Sorceries
308. Tribals
309. Planes
310. Phenomena
311. Vanguards
312. Schemes
313. Conspiracies
4. Zones
400. General
401. Library
402. Hand
403. Battlefield
404. Graveyard
405. Stack
406. Exile
407. Ante
408. Command
5. Turn Structure
500. General
501. Beginning Phase
502. Untap Step
503. Upkeep Step
504. Draw Step
505. Main Phase
506. Combat Phase
507. Beginning of Combat Step
508. Declare Attackers Step
509. Declare Blockers Step
510. Combat Damage Step
511. End of Combat Step
512. Ending Phase
513. End Step
514. Cleanup Step
6. Spells, Abilities, and Effects
600. General
601. Casting Spells
602. Activating Activated Abilities
603. Handling Triggered Abilities
604. Handling Static Abilities
605. Mana Abilities
606. Loyalty Abilities
607. Linked Abilities
608. Resolving Spells and Abilities
609. Effects
610. One-Shot Effects
611. Continuous Effects
612. Text-Changing Effects
613. Interaction of Continuous Effects
614. Replacement Effects
615. Prevention Effects
616. Interaction of Replacement and/or Prevention Effects
7. Additional Rules
700. General
701. Keyword Actions
702. Keyword Abilities
703. Turn-Based Actions
704. State-Based Actions
705. Flipping a Coin
706. Copying Objects
707. Face-Down Spells and Permanents
708. Split Cards
709. Flip Cards
710. Leveler Cards
711. Double-Faced Cards
712. Meld Cards
713. Checklist Cards
714. Saga Cards
715. Adventurer Cards
716. Controlling Another Player
717. Ending Turns and Phases
718. The Monarch
719. Restarting the Game
720. Subgames
721. Merging with Permanents
722. Taking Shortcuts
723. Handling Illegal Actions
8. Multiplayer Rules
800. General
801. Limited Range of Influence Option
802. Attack Multiple Players Option
803. Attack Left and Attack Right Options
804. Deploy Creatures Option
805. Shared Team Turns Option
806. Free-for-All Variant
807. Grand Melee Variant
808. Team vs. Team Variant
809. Emperor Variant
810. Two-Headed Giant Variant
811. Alternating Teams Variant
9. Casual Variants
900. General
901. Planechase
902. Vanguard
903. Commander
904. Archenemy
905. Conspiracy Draft
Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules

These rules are effective as of July 3, 2020.


This document is the ultimate authority for Magic: The Gathering® competitive game play. It consists of a series of numbered rules followed by a glossary. Many of the numbered rules are divided into subrules, and each separate rule and subrule of the game has its own number. (Note that subrules skip the letters "l" and "o" due to potential confusion with the numbers "1" and "0"; subrule 704.5k is followed by 704.5m, then 704.5n, then 704.5p, for example.)

Changes may have been made to this document since its publication. You can download the most recent version from the Magic rules website at If you have questions, you can get the answers from us at


Magic: The Gathering Original Game Design: Richard Garfield

Comprehensive Rules Design and Development: Paul Barclay, Mark L. Gottlieb, Beth Moursund, Bill Rose, and Matt Tabak, with contributions from Charlie Cátiṇ, John Carter, Elaine Chase, Laurie Cheers, Stephen D'Angelo, Dave DeLaney, Brady Dommermuth, Mike Donais, Skaff Elias, Mike Elliott, Richard Garfield, Dan Gray, Robert Gutschera, Collin Jackson, William Jockusch, Jeff Jordan, Yonemura Kaoru, Russell Linnemann, Jim Lin, Steve Lord, Sheldon Menery, Michael Phoenix, Mark Rosewater, David Sachs, Lee Sharpe, Eli Shiffrin, Henry Stern, Donald X. Vaccarino, Thijs van Ommen, Ingo Warnke, Tom Wylie, and Bryan Zembruski

Editing: Del Laugel (lead), Gregg Luben, Nat Moes, Matt Tabak, and Hans Ziegler

Magic Rules Management: Eli Shiffrin

The Magic: The Gathering game was designed by Richard Garfield, with contributions from Charlie Cátiṇ, Skaff Elias, Don Felice, Tom Fontaine, Jim Lin, Joel Mick, Chris Page, Dave Pettey, Barry "Bit" Reich, Bill Rose, and Elliott Segal. The mana symbols were designed by Christopher Rush.

Thanks to all our project team members and the many others too numerous to mention who have contributed to this product.

These rules are effective as of July 3, 2020.

Published by Wizards of the Coast LLC, PO Box 707, Renton, WA 98057-0707, USA. Wizards of the Coast, Magic: The Gathering, Magic, Oracle, Arabian Nights, Antiquities, Homelands, Exodus, Odyssey, Mirrodin, Kamigawa, Ravnica: City of Guilds, Time Spiral, Future Sight, Lorwyn, Shadowmoor, Zendikar, Scars of Mirrodin, Innistrad, Return to Ravnica, Khans of Tarkir, Magic Origins, Shadows over Innistrad, Eldritch Moon, Magic: The Gathering—Conspiracy, Conspiracy: Take the Crown, Ixalan, Rivals of Ixalan, Unglued, Unstable, Dominaria, Ikoria, and Planeswalker Decks are trademarks of Wizards of the Coast LLC in the USA and other countries. Unhinged is a trademark of Horn Abbot Ltd. and is used with permission. ©2020 Wizards. U.S. Pat. No. RE 37,957.